Cairo. 8 April. REPORT.AZ/ What comes to each person's mind when the question is Egypt? Of course Pyramids, Mummies, Sphinx. For 4 thousand years these historical sites were a magnet attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists a year to Egypt. Being close to the pyramids, it is difficult to believe that facilities of this scale constructed by human hands.
Report presents reportage from this "cradle of civilization".
In total, there are up to 110 Egyptian pyramids, but the most famous are located in Giza Necropolis at Pyramid of Khafre, Khufu and Menkaure.
Pyramid of Cheops is the biggest among them which is 138 meters.
Chephren Pyramid just lower by 2 meters, but at the same time preserve the pristine veneer.Unfortunately, there is nothing left in the pyramid apart from the old stones.Much of the wealth was stolen either by ancient robbers or taken away by the French, Germans and British.
12 kg gold mask of Tutankhamun and other findings found in the pyramids of mummies are kept today at the world famous Cairo Museum.
2.5 mln stone blocks required to build a pyramid, which were cut in quarries near Cairo and transported to the construction site, and marble for the pyramids of Egypt brought from the south along the river.
Scientists have not figured it out yet how Egyptians managed to build these pyramids without assistance, taking into account that the weight of a stone block reaches two tons, and for the construction of the pyramid needed 40 years - 20-on cutting block, 20 - for construction.
The most valuable and expensive things were put in tomb with mummy. Additional smaller pyramids - for mothers, wives and children of Pharaoh were built near the main pyramids.
Mummification process in ancient Egypt is also very interesting. The body of the deceased pharaoh brought into the temple, and then his internal organs - liver, stomach, heart took out, which were placed in separate jars. Ancient priests removed brain through the nose, as embalming was impossible.
Another important and mysterious monument necropolis of Giza is the Great Sphinx - the head of ahuman and thebody of a lion carved out of a single ridge of limestone. The size of statue is impressive - its length - 72 meters, height - 20 meters; between the front paws there used to be a small sanctuary.
No one knows who first discovered the Sphinx, but unfortunately, the statue in its original form has not been preserved to the present days.
So, during the war between the French and the Egyptians during the Battle of the Pyramids in 1798.
Thus, during the Battle at the Pyramids in 1798 during the war between the French and the Egyptians, the shot French in the battle damaged the Sphinx's nose. Another loss was the ceremonial beard, which the British just simply "grabbed" to London.
Today, the pyramids and the Sphinx face many challenges: Vandalism, disrespect to history, sandy sediment, erosion and deterioration of the ecology of Cairo and Giza.
However, thanks to the efforts of restorers, these giant monuments still appear before the tourists from all over the world in all its glory.
Despite the fact that scientists were able to learn a lot about the creation of the pyramids and the Sphinx, a part of this knowledge still only hypotheses.Ancient pyramids and the Sphinx continues to store its mysteries through the centuries.